Assisted reproduction technologies ARTs and the possibilities they now offer in terms of the access to parenthood outside the bounds of heterosexual sexuality have been treated as a way of making the interest of the child conditional to the desire of the parents Roy, Enfances Familles Générations Revue interdisciplinaire sur la famille contemporaine.
Ouellette, F-R. In , national legislation was enacted to prohibit sexual orientation based discrimination in employment, housing and other public and private provisions of services and goods. Les usages sociaux des handicaps, Paris, Minuit. Marriage between same-sex partners is possible in 11 countries of the European Union, in all Canadian provinces and now in all States of the USA, but it has prompted heated debates in France, especially as regards filiation and the possibility that two parents of the same sex have children together.
Yet, social practices do not confirm this lack of formality.